2021 Juried Research Poster Session


“He Knew That We Are All Different”: Teaching Practices of Salient String Pedagogues


The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify and describe teaching behaviors of eight salient string pedagogues. Preliminary analysis suggests that salient string pedagogues engage in systematic and regimented modes of teaching and that the most frequently utilized type of knowledge in their studios is pedagogical content knowledge, defined as “[knowledge that] goes beyond knowledge of subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter knowledge for teaching” (Shulman 1986, p. 9).

Presenter:
  • Dijana Ihas, Pacific University



“Make It Better”: Developing Musicians’ Plans for Practice


Musicians derive the most from independent practice when they formulate clear proximal goals and effectively structure performance trials to reduce discrepancies between their goals and their actual performance. We asked 200 high school musicians who had just completed an audition at a summer music camp to describe how they would practice their audition music if given an opportunity to do so again. Approximately twice as many students mentioned performance goals (i.e., what they wanted to accomplish: tune an interval, play more evenly) than mentioned practice strategies (i.e., how they would go about practicing to accomplish their goals).

Presenters:
  • Lani Hamilton, University of Missouri–Kansas City Conservatory
  • Amy Simmons, University of Texas at Austin, Center for Music Learning
  • Sarah Allen, Southern Methodist University, Meadows School of the Arts
  • Carla Cash, Texas Tech University, School of Music
  • Robert Duke, University of Texas at Austin, Butler School of Music



A Case Study: Virtuoso Violinist Performed Bow Skew


Presenter:
  • David Sogin, University of Kentucky



A Content Analysis of the American String Teacher from 2000 through 2019


The purpose of the present study was to examine feature articles and their authors in the American String Teacher journal for issues published from 2000 through 2019. A majority of articles focused on general topics on the profession and instrument pedagogy. Very few articles were published on assessment and exceptional learners. Contributing authors were primarily male and held positions in higher education with few authors coming from music industry fields and K–12 education.

Presenters:
  • John-Rine Zabanal, VanderCook College of Music
  • Annalisa Chang, Clayton State University
  • Heather Lofdahl, University of North Carolina Greensboro



An Examination of Organizational Structure of Medical Orchestras in the U. S.


The purpose of this study was to investigate medical orchestras and the experiences of musicians who held leadership positions in them. Findings from this research may benefit medical professionals and musicians who seek to improve the wellness of members in the medical community.

Presenter:
  • Nicoletta Moss, University of North Carolina Greensboro



An Examination of the American String Teacher Editorial Committee from 2006–2022


The purpose of the present study was to examine members of the American String Teacher (AST) journal—the premiere practitioner journal of the American String Teachers Association—editorial committee from 2006 through 2022. The primary objective was to determine the overall profession of editorial committee members while the secondary objective was to determine the gender demographics.

Presenter:
  • John-Rine Zabanal, VanderCook College of Music



An Exploratory Investigation of Gender Bias at Orchestra Performance Assessment in Virginia


The purpose of the present study was to examine orchestra performance assessment scores of male- and female-directed ensembles in the Commonwealth of Virginia from 2013 through 2019. Findings indicated more female director representation than males among participating orchestras and invited adjudicators. Additionally, female middle school directors were significantly more likely to earn a superior rating than males whereas no significant differences of scores were found between director gender among high school orchestra.

Presenters:
  • John-Rine Zabanal, VanderCook College of Music
  • Angela Ammerman, George Mason University



Beyond Inclusion: Fostering Authentic Connections in Music Learning Spaces


This poster features narratives of two music students who challenged and inspired the authors to revisit our own music pedagogy. We draw from literature on inclusive pedagogy, culturally-sustaining pedagogy, and radical welcome to offer ways that teachers might help students (a) become attuned to their individual needs, interests, and values; (b) learn how to assert and express those needs; (c) listen to and respect the expressions of others; and (d) forge authentic connections in music-making.

Presenters:
  • Karin Hendricks, Boston University
  • Brian Kellum, Boston University

Content Analysis of the Bornoff String Bulletin and the String Education Quarterly


Upon finding documents relating to the clarification of the Bornoff Approach to string teaching, a content analysis was run on the Bornoff String Bulletin and the String Education Quarterly, two historical periodicals published from 1968 to 1990. The content analysis revealed overarching themes relating to the Bornoff Approach. These data indicated with considerable clarity the fundamental nature of the Bornoff Approach, and offer considerable pedagogy in realizing the Bornoff Approach not available to the general public.

Presenters:
  • Matt McGrory, University of Kansas
  • Jacob Dakon, University of Kansas



Distance Music Learning Among Members of a New Horizons Orchestra


This research poster explores the experiences of older adults in a New Horizons Orchestra engaged in online distance music learning and music-making. The themes emerging from the interview and observation data included (a) how older amateur and novice string musicians navigated a digital online learning environment, (b) the challenges they experienced, and (c) their motivations to continue social and musical interactions amidst forced separation (due to the COVID-19 pandemic).

Presenter:
  • Samuel Tsugawa, Brigham Young University



George Bridgetower: Beethoven’s “African Prince” and His Contribution to the Classical Music Canon


Restoring the legacy of artists of color in classical music and creating a new artistic vitality around this work by commissioning contemporary composers to respond to her research, this poster session examines definitions of inclusive artistic collaboration. Through revising the past, reimagining the commission and research processes, this poster session explores the commission as a diversity tool pairing companion-connecting works with the life and contributions of nineteenth-century Afro-European violin virtuoso, George Bridgetower.

Presenter:
  • Nicole Cherry, University of Texas at San Antonio



Impact of String Project Teaching Experience in Community Partnership Schools on Teacher Development


The purpose of this instrumental multiple case study (Stake, 2006) is to explore the impact and values of String Project teaching experience in community partnership schools on teacher development of diverse teacher experience levels. Data will be collected using semi-structured interview methods of two current String Project staff members. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for future research in our profession, especially in the area of the teacher development of graduate students, as well as data to inform our ongoing efforts to improve and expand string music educator preparation.

Presenters:
  • Blair Williams, Texas Tech University
  • Nicacio Lopez, Texas Tech University
  • Bethany Portillo, Texas Tech University



Integrating CMP and CRP in Studio Instruction to Create Culturally Diverse Musicians


In a K–12 music classroom, teachers are adapting comprehensive musicianship through performance (CMP) and culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in their classrooms. Given the deep relational teaching a studio instructor develops with the students, CRP work can bring a lasting effect on how a child understands cultures other than their own. This kind of study is building a 21st-century citizen who can accept and appreciate people of all ethnicities, races, and religions through the study of the culturally rich heritage of the arts and specifically their music.

Presenters:
  • Noah Schaffrick, University Of Wisconsin – Whitewater
  • Susan Chandler, University Of Wisconsin – Whitewater



Intonation of Middle School Violinists: The Roles of Pitch Perception and Sensorimotor Integration


Intonation in string instrument performance consists of the perception of musical pitch and the motor skills necessary to produce musical pitch. Scholars in cognitive psychology have suggested that the association of perception and motor skills results in the formation of sensorimotor skills which play a key role in skilled behaviors including music performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which pitch discrimination and sensorimotor integration explain the intonation of middle school violinists.

Presenter:
  • Molly Baugh, Indiana University Southeast



Perception of Bright and Dark String Timbres: The Role of Spectral Distributions


We investigated whether musician listeners would agree in their judgments of string instrument tone quality regarding the commonly used terms “dark” and "bright.” Results indicated that 56 music students were able to discriminate between dark, mid-level, and bright examples presented for each stimulus instrument (violin, cello, guitar, and electronic tone). Further, ratings indicated correspondence with acoustical measures of spectral centers of gravity.

Presenters:
  • John M. Geringer, Florida State University
  • Patricia J. Flowers, Florida State University



Performer Preference for Notation of Expressive Markings in Music: Text Versus Symbol


An assessment tool was designed to discover any hierarchy of preference among student musicians for marking expressive indicators. Recommendations from a pilot study resulted in changes to both the prompts and the musical example used. The revised tool will be used to assess collegiate band, choir, and orchestra students at a private university located in the southwestern United States. Findings will be presented with recommendations to future researchers, classroom teachers, composers of educational literature, and publishers of pedagogical methods and assessments.

Presenters:
  • Michael Alexander, Baylor University
  • Kelly Jo Hollingsworth, Baylor University

Seeking Windows and Mirrors: The Cultural Content of Beginning String Method Books


Using the framework of curriculum as windows and mirrors, this content analysis explores the cultural content of five string method books to better understand how method book repertoire functions as mirrors of students’ musical lives, reflecting their own lived experiences, as well as windows into the lived experiences of others. Results show an over-representation of Euro-American music, which has implications for how our students learn music, develop a musical identity, and understand their lives in a larger socio-political context.

Presenter:
  • Mercedes Lysaker, Youth Orchestra of St. Luke’s



String Players’ Experiences with Ear-Playing and Improvisation


The purpose of this study was to investigate string players’ experiences with ear-playing and improvisation. Participants (n = 57) for this study included string players who identified as either a student, teacher, or performer. Social media platforms were used to distribute the questionnaire to participants. Results show that string players generally have experience with playing by ear and improvisation, however, more experience and development of these skills is needed.

Presenter:
  • Sarah Heuermann, Florida State University



Student Musician Experience Performing in a Hospital Lobby


Students from the University of Nebraska at Omaha and Millard North High School collaborated during a semester-long service-learning project in 2019 and 2020, Sound Health, bringing music to medicine. Sound health, founded in 2010, brings live music to healthcare environments to contribute to the environment of care and to give string students the opportunity to engage with their community and perform. This poster will highlight the student musician experience performing in a hospital lobby based on pre- and post-performance surveys.

Presenters:
  • Mary Perkinson, University of Nebraska at Omaha
  • Debbie Martinez, Millard North High School
  • Matthew Brooks, University of Nebraska at Omaha



The Effect of Register, Direction, and Magnitude on Musician Evaluations of Ensemble Intonation


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in register, direction, and magnitude of an out-of-tune line on musician evaluations of ensemble intonation. Musicians evaluated recordings of Capriol Suite, Movement II, that had been manipulated. Specifically, the first violin and the cello parts were altered to either 20 or 30 cents sharp or flat. Implications for performers, teachers, and researchers are discussed.

Presenter:
  • David Miller, University of Maryland College Park



The String Pedagogy Of D. C. Dounis


A presentation of the Dounis Principles of Violin Playing as they apply to both right and left hand technique. Topics will include, but are not limited to: the brush stroke and the erasure stroke, the weightless frame, balance of the left hand, slow versus fast technique, vibrato, the lifting of the fingers, finger independence, bow exercises, practice techniques, and Dounis’s ideas on performing. Biographic information on Dounis and a list of students will also be presented.

Presenter:
  • Brendan Bordick-Lesavage, Scranton Music Academy



Through the Eyes of Experienced Orchestra Directors: Lessons for Successful Classroom Management


This research study will examine the practices of experienced string orchestra directors in relation to the topic of classroom management as it pertains to successful teaching practices in the context of rehearsal settings. One of the related research outcomes will be the compilation of a collection of effective classroom management tools that could be used as a useful resource for future novice string orchestra directors.

Presenters:
  • Lisa Maynard, James Madison University
  • Regan Berguist, James Madison University
  • Kyle Mendez, James Madison University
  • Jordan Wright, University College London
  • Hannah Gould, Fredericksburg City Public Schools



Virtual Teaching Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Applied String Studio


The purpose of this study was to describe teaching practices used in virtual applied studio string lessons precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore teachers’ adaptations, perceptions of effectiveness, and attitudes toward virtual lessons. Data was gathered through a researcher-created survey from members of ASTA (n = 299) who identified as “private studio teachers.” Research questions that guided this study included: What teaching practices were utilized in virtual applied studio string lessons? How did teachers adapt to virtual lessons? Did teachers feel these lessons were effective? And what affective responses did teachers have to these lessons?

Presenter:
  • Morganne Aaberg, Indiana University - Bloomington